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EITA Smart Cities and Sustainable Smart Manufacturing Forum

The Supermoon in Hoboken, NJ.
(Downtown New York City, meet the Supermoon in Hoboken, NJ - Jeff M. Wang)

 Smart Cities - Driving A New Digital Economy




"We live in a world experiencing economic turmoil, climate change, aging populations, and rapid urbanization. But we also live in the midst of tremendous technological innovations that have the potential to address the issues that challenge every city." -- (CISCO) 

"Achieving sustainable urbanization, together with the preservation of our planet’s fragile ecosystem, is recognized as one of the major challenges for humanity in the coming decades. Cities are responsible for more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and they are accountable for 60-80% of global energy consumption, contributing to environmental degradation locally, regionally and globally. These percentages are expected to rise with the growing population rates in terms of migration and increasing birth rates." -- (ITU-T)  

Cities around the world are currently under quick transition towards a low carbon environment, high quality of living, and resource efficient economy. We need to make our cities more efficient and safe with smart technology that gives us information about the environment and what’s going on in it. Nowadays, smart cities are considered as an effective way to support the economic growth, while controlling climatic changes and adapting novel technologies to improve the quality of life of urban citizens. 

The Rise of the Smart City

In the last 50 years, world population has grown exponentially at an average rate of 1.2% per year. In 2017, the global population was 7.6 billion (Worldometers). The world population is expected to reach 8.6 billion in 2030, 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100, according to an United Nations report being launched in June, 2017. With roughly 83 million people being added to the world’s population every year, the upward trend in population size is expected to continue, even assuming that fertility levels will continue to decline.

By 2050, it is expected that approximately 70% of the world's population (9.8 billion people) will be living in urban areas. Each year, the percentage of people over the age of 60 increases. By 2050, the number of people over the age of 60 is expected to triple and will outnumber children under 15 for the first time in human history. Growing cities face many challenges, longer commutes, higher rents. fewer opportunities.

"Cities in the 21st century will account for nearly 90% of global population growth, 80% of wealth creation, and 60% of total energy consumption." -- (MIT) Trying to manage the rapid expansion of cities and metropolitan regions presents challenges for governments, businesses and policymakers as they look for new ways to support the needs and safety of the people, develop sustainable infrastructures, enable economic growth and stability. The cities that will flourish the most are those that rely on cutting-edge technologies and create opportunities for people to develop new ones. 

It is a global imperative to develop systems that improve the livability of cities while dramatically reducing resource consumption. Making cities resilient against disease outbreaks, man-made crises, and natural disasters is the key to the 21st century. The process of urbanization has become so important that it has become a catalyst in the transformation of major cities to smart cities.  More specifically, these cities are planning to evolve from rather passive cities into smart cities.

Smart Cities and the Future of Urban Housing

Why are we experiencing rapid urbanization? The bottom line for most people who move to urban areas and larger cities comes down to better job prospects and bigger networking opportunities. By 2050, it is expected that approximately 70% of the world's population (9.8 billion people) will be living in urban areas. In the United States, most major cities are experiencing housing shortages. Because of the growing urban population, disparity between supply and demand, and higher cost of living, developers and urban planners have had to reassess what it means for the future of cities and the concept of comfortable living. 

Housing demands and other financial burdens have caused housing prices to skyrocket beyond the reach of younger people, who are at the age where baby boomers were once able to afford a standard home. In addition, living preferences and priorities for younger people are worlds apart from their parents’ generation. Apartment units, condominiums, and mixed-use spaces that have a wide range of amenities (such as a gym and a pool, proximity to public transit and commercial areas) are highly desired among urban residents looking to buy or rent property. These factors have contributed to the development of new housing trends and urban planning priorities.

With the majority of urban residents favoring interconnectedness and innovative urban spaces, initiatives around smart cities involve higher density housing capacities, more public transit and environmentally sustainable energy systems. New construction methods and flexible building designs enable radical mixed-use, walkable neighborhoods that reduce the cost of housing and retail space.

Urban Computing and Fully Digitizing Smart Cities

Urbanization’s rapid progress has modernized many people’s lives but also engendered big issues, such as traffic congestion, energy consumption, and pollution. Urban computing aims to tackle these issues by using the data that has been generated in cities (e.g., traffic flow, human mobility, and geographical data). Urban computing connects urban sensing, data management, data analytics, and service providing into a recurrent process for an unobtrusive and continuous improvement of people’s lives, city operation systems, and the environment. Urban computing is an interdisciplinary field where computer sciences meet conventional city-related fields, like transportation, civil engineering, environment, economy, ecology, and sociology in the context of urban spaces.

Cities have always been hubs of technological experimentation, shaped by the people who inhabit them and the tools they use. A smart city is an urban development vision to integrate multiple information and communication technology (ICT) and Internet of Things (IoT) solutions in a secure fashion to manage a city’s assets – the city’s assets include, but are not limited to, local departments' information systems, schools, libraries, transportation systems, hospitals, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law enforcement, and other community services. Urban performance depends not only on the city's endowment of hard infrastructure, but also on the availability and quality of knowledge communication and social infrastructure. The goal of building a smart city is to improve quality of life by using urban informatics and technology to improve the efficiency of services and meet residents’ needs. 

Smart cities are a future reality for municipalities around the world. They are creative, innovative, conceptual, and city-wide technology-human-infrastructure integration platforms. The next wave of real-time technologies that will define the next decade are software (rather than hardware) upgrades to the city that will nonetheless transform the way we work, play and live in our physical environments - our cities. "Today, academic research and industrial applications in the area of smart cities seek to optimize existing city infrastructure, networks, and urban behavior through the deployment and utilization of digital networks. Cities that employ optimization techniques have reported improvements in energy efficiency, water use, public safety, road congestion, and many other areas." -- (MIT) 

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have the capacity to enable processes of urban transformation, by helping cities become smarter and more sustainable. These cities will use the power of smart computing, ubiquitous communication networks, highly distributed wireless sensor technology, Internet of Things, cloud computing, security and privacy, social computing, cognitive computing, cyber-physical systems, virtual reality, big data analytics, video analytics with intelligent computer vision, intelligent management systems, etc. to solve current and future challenges and create exciting new services. Especially, "Artificial intelligence (AI) has already transformed our lives - from the autonomous cars on the roads to the robotic vacuums and smart thermostats in our homes.  Over the next 15 years, AI technologies will continue to make inroads in nearly every aspect of our lives, from education to entertainment, healthcare to security." -- (Harvard University) 

(San Francisco, California, U.S.A. - Jeffrey M. Wang)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology and Big Data are Building Smarter Cities

At the heart of the smart city is the ability to connect the dots between ICT and basic services, and to innovate in using technology to deliver better services to citizens. The innovative use of data helps provide better and more inventive services to improve people’s lives and make the entire city run more smoothly.

The first step in a city becoming a smart city is collecting more and better data. If an organization doesn’t start with good data, trying to make predictions about how new government policies will work can end up deeply flawed or even counterproductive. Helping cities gather and process data is one place AI is currently being put to use. 

Smart city technologies integrate and analyze massive amounts of data to anticipate, mitigate, and even prevent many problems. There are millions of devices already deployed in cities, and billions more coming, that can make a city smarter by collecting data on traffic, weather, energy, and water usage, and much more, often in real-time. That data can be analyzed and the resulting knowledge put to work to understand what’s happening now and predict what will happen in the future. 

There are three major categories of applications how governments and companies are using AI right now in cities: helping government officials learn more about how people use cities, improving infrastructure and optimizing the use of these resources, and improving public safety in cities. For example, monitoring traffic patterns might alert city planners of the future need for a widened lane or new traffic light. Knowing this information well in advance will allow cities to contract with construction firms in plenty of time with detailed information on where new traffic implementations will be most effective. Potential advancements include the areas of management of water, energy, energy efficiency, smarter healthcare, solid waste, public safety, public transport, traffic and congestion, smart parking, growth of ICT infrastructure and its environmental impacts, vertical farming (urban farming), air quality monitoring, etc.. ICT is the central nervous system of smart cities. 

Smart City and Industry 4.0

The digital revolution has brought with it a new way of thinking about manufacturing and operations. Connected automation in manufacturing leads to a faster and more flexible production process, greater efficiency of material, and reduction of complexity and downtime. The power of Industry 4.0 is now becoming real - connecting industry to the real potential for the smart factory. Industry 4.0 solutions are highly dependent on connectivity - technically as well as organizationally within the entire value creation process connecting suppliers and manufacturers. Open standards are crucial. Industry 4.0 marks the “beginning of the end” for proprietary interfaces. Only with open cooperation and the exchange of ideas and solution approaches will Industry 4.0 concepts find their way to/into practical solutions. 

Emerging challenges associated with logistics and energy costs are influencing global production and associated distribution decisions. Significant advances in technology, including big data and analytics, AI, Internet of Things, robotics and additive manufacturing, are shifting the capabilities and value proposition of global manufacturing. In response, manufacturing and operations require a digital renovation: the value chain must be redesigned and retooled and the workforce retrained. Total delivered cost must be analyzed to determine the best places to locate sources of supply, manufacturing and assembly operations around the world. In other words we need a digital transformation. 

Machine production is networked into a self-learning system using cutting-edge communication technology – resulting in a smart factory. The foundation for this modern industrial revolution is the Internet of Things (IoT), which enables continuous data exchange between all participating units – from the production robot to inventory management to the microchip. This connects all production and logistics processes together, making our industry more intelligent, efficient and sustainable. Following nine pillars of technological advancement underpin Industry 4.0: Big Data and Analytics, Autonomous Robots, Simulation, Horizontal and Vertical System Integration, the Industrial Internet of Things, Cybersecurity, the Cloud, Additive Manufacturing, and Augmented Reality. 

The Internet of Things (IoT) shall be used for the development of so–called smart products. Sub-components of the product are equipped with their own intelligence. Added intelligence is used both during the manufacturing of a product as well as during subsequent handling, up to continuous monitoring of the product life cycle (smart processes). Other important aspects of the Industry 4.0 are Internet of Services (IoS), which includes especially intelligent transport and logistics (smart mobility, smart logistics), as well as Internet of Energy (IoE), which determines how the natural resources are used in proper way (electricity, water, oil, etc.). IoT, IoS, Internet of People (IoP) and IoE can be considered as an element that can create a connection of the smart city initiative and Industry 4.0 – Industry 4.0 can be seen as a part of smart cities.  

Linking information from process-based Industry 4.0 with intelligent transport systems of the smart city could create very effective, demand-oriented and higher productivity of manufacturing enterprises as well as sustainable development of society.

Enabling Smart Cities with a Smart ICT Infrastructure

Our future is a world of connected devices. That means enormous needs for infrastructure, speed and support. As envisioned, the connected world uses a combination of hardware, software, data and services to connect all of our devices, appliances and equipment allowing them to operate together. The applications are nearly limitless including smart grids, homes, cities, transportation networks, healthcare devices, automobiles and many services and ideas not yet conceived.

The right ICT infrastructure will affect the way each city will be created and evolve. And it will enable smart cities to include vastly enhanced sustainable areas. Ultra-broadband, cloud and M2M applications provide innovative and cost-effective ways to manage millions of devices that enrich the lives of citizens and attract businesses. For example, sensors around the cities will detect the amount of garbage in cans to help sanitation workers maximize efficiency, while simultaneously monitoring devices to identify leaks or changes in water pressure in waterways. Solar panels will monitor how much energy they’re providing and let workers know when they need maintenance. Smart buildings are capable of detecting fires in the areas around them and automatically placing a call to the fire department in the event of an emergency. Cameras and drones can monitor activity in remote areas not frequented by police or law enforcement, 

There are 10 key elements that define a smart city: smart economy, smart living, smart governance, smart building, smart healthcare, smart mobility, smart infrastructure, smart technology, smart energy and smart citizens. All of which can be provided by prudent applications of ICT. 

Network Infrastructure and 5G Wireless for the Smart Cities

The coming wireless revolution is bigger than anything you can imagine. There is no denying that mobile data consumption is exploding, and all of our future technologies will require vastly faster, ubiquitous wireless connectivity. Bandwidth has become the lifeblood of cities. It’s really the base technology that all others are built on. We are now in the early stages the next technological revolution: the development of a ubiquitous wireless network that will marry data collection and computation with billions of devices. 
5G wireless will provide significantly faster data speeds, much higher data capacity, better coverage, and lower latency - or quicker response times - than 4G. Compared to 4G, 5G aims for a 10X decrease in end-to-end latency, 100X traffic capacity and network efficiency, three times the spectrum efficiency, and 10 times the connection density. 5G has the potential to make cities into smart cities. 
The smart city is underpinned by the uninterrupted and reliable flow of data from interconnected wired and wireless networks. When data needs to be real-time, it absolutely cannot be interrupted or bogged down by latency problems. 5G allows for significant performance enhancements and the ability for mobile network operators (MNOs) to virtually partition - or slice - the network to guarantee the required performance for various applications. The process will allow networks to be broken up into numerous portions that can be managed independently, customized, and, most importantly, not affect one another if one portion is overloaded or down. 
5G will include both mobile and fixed-base wireless applications; for example, a 5G modem can replace fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) installations with wireless connections. For the first time, 5G could transform Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) - a term that refers to the connection of two or more fixed locations (such as buildings) using a wireless network. Differing from a 5G mobile network in that the endpoints don’t move, 5G FWA is touted to deliver throughput, latency and reliability equivalent to fibre, at a lower cost. 5G will make it possible to connect entire networks of fixed locations and systems with previously unattainable performance. Crucially, these efficient, agile networks will deliver the ubiquitous connectivity needed to underpin a vast ecosystem of connected services – in essence, a smart city.
The impact of 5G will extend well beyond telecommunications: by connecting people, machines and things on a massive scale. It will become the underlying fabric of an entire ecosystem of fully connected sensors and devices, capable of overhauling economic and business policies, and further blurring geographical and cultural borders. The smart city will only reach its fully interconnected potential with the onset of 5G network connectivity from 2020.

Cloud-based and Internet of Things (IoT)-based Services

Cloud computing is the on-demand delivery of compute power, database storage, applications, and other IT resources through a cloud services platform via the internet with pay-as-you-go pricing. On the other hand, IoT concept envisions a new generation of devices (sensors, both virtual and physical) that are connected to the Internet and provide different services for value-added applications. The smart city concept is the logical culmination of IoT.

Smart city technologies promote cloud-based and IoT-based services in which real-world user interfaces use smart phones, sensors and RFIDs. Cloud computing and IoT are presently two most important ICT models that are shaping the next generation of computing. Both concepts have major impact on how we build and deploy smart applications/solutions for smart cities. 

A smart city uses IoT sensors, actuators, and technology to connect components throughout its borders. This impacts every layer of a city, from underneath the streets, to buildings and traffic, to the air its citizens are breathing.

Big Data and Analytics in Smart Cities

As populations grow and resources become scarcer, the efficient usage of these limited goods becomes more important. Smart cities are a key factor in the consumption of materials and resources. Big data analytics examines large amounts of data to uncover hidden patterns, correlations and other insights. With today’s technology, it’s possible to analyze big data and get answers from it almost immediately. Smart cities are focused on controlling available resources safely, sustainably, and efficiently to improve the economy and societal outcomes. 

Data is driving global changes to public policy and environmental awareness. People, systems, and things in the cities generate data. Thus, data from various resources are considered to be the most scalable asset of a smart city. However, the heterogeneity of data makes it difficult to publish, organize, discover, interpret, combine, analyze, and consume. Certainly, data are big and comes from heterogeneous environments such as water, energy, traffic, and buildings. 

In smart cities, various municipals and state agencies generate heterogeneous data with minimal or no coordination. Thus, the challenges arise with the early stages of big data in smart cities hinder the progress towards the latter stages i.e. data analytics, query answering, data visualization, etc.. In order to tackle these challenges and issues, the existing techniques in big data analytics for smart cities are still immature. 

Sustainable Mobility Trends in the New Digital Era

One of the toughest environmental and social challenges of our time is managing the mobility of people and goods. According to the World Bank, by 2030, passenger traffic will exceed 80,000 billion passenger-kilometers - a fifty percent increase - freight volume will grow by 70 percent globally, and the number of vehicles on the road is expected to double globally by 2050 compared to 2017.
Technology will form the backbone of mobility in the future. More data and connectivity can lead to more efficient and convenient mobility in the new digital era. Self-driving technology and digital navigation tools, electric powertrains, vehicle sharing, and other advances are transforming urban mobility. The way that people get around cities is changing dramatically. Technological advances and new transportation services are making it possible for city dwellers to cross town ever more efficiently and safely. Mobility that is smart and sustainable will be essential in addressing global issues such as climate change, poverty, women’s empowerment, and public health and safety. 
Fast-moving trends are influencing urban-mobility systems around the world. Some trends, like vehicle electrification and the development of autonomous-driving technology, relate directly to mobility. The decentralization of energy systems will make a difference as modes of transportation come to rely more and more on electricity as an energy source. The spread of IoT applications into vehicles and infrastructure will generate data with a variety of uses. Ride-hailing services have grown rapidly over the past few years and now compete not only with traditional car-sharing and car-pooling providers but also with public transit and private vehicle ownership. 
The following trends are likely to have the biggest impact on the development of integrated mobility in smart cities: shared mobility, autonomous driving, vehicle electrification, public transit, connectivity and the Internet of Things, infrastructure, decentralization of energy systems, and regulations.

Intelligent Transportation Systems for Smart Cities

A city’s transport system acts as a lifeline for the smooth functioning of the city. In the absence of right commuting channels, life comes to a halt for people residing in urban areas. Proper means and management of transport channels defines the quality of life in modern hi-tech cities.

Smart cities need smart transport services. Proper movement of people, goods and services accelerate the growth and development of a region. Improving mobility and decreasing traffic congestion are some of the biggest challenges facing smart cities today. Congestion impacts the daily lives of commuters, as well as businesses and visitors to the city. To meet this challenge many city planners are looking to smart transport solutions to reduce congestion as well as to optimise the use of city public transport.

Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) can revolutionize the way people commute in metros and smart cities. ITS offer novel approach in providing different transportation modes, advanced infrastructure, traffic and mobility management solutions. It uses number of electronics, wireless and communication technologies to provide consumers an access to a smarter, safer, and faster way to travelling.
In smart cities of the future, transportation systems will use sensors to detect congestion and bottlenecks in traffic patterns and rely on cameras to enforce speed and traffic infractions. Selfdriving cars will shuttle people in and out of the city, giving rides and making deliveries, and apps will coordinate with smart parking meters to let drivers know where there’s available parking, etc..

Smart City Crowdsourcing

The goals for a smart city are to enhance the quality of its citizens, across multiple dimensions (but not limited to) such as water, energy, transport, education, environment, mobility, waste management, public safety, affordable housing and health care, and creative economy. Better data integration, combined with more accessible community hubs that offer a variety of local services, enable a comprehensive approach to social and community services that delivers better outcomes to people at lower cost. 

A smart future for our cities is not just one where technology has generated better resource management or improved access to public services; it is one where we live more collaboratively. Smart cities connect citizens to local government and encourage more direct participation, interaction, and collaboration. By combining people-centered urban design with cutting-edge technology, we can achieve new standards of sustainability, affordability, mobility, and economic opportunity. 

Crowdsourcing will play a major role in shaping the smart cities of the future. Smart cities need not only government commitment, but also engagement from citizens and the collaboration of the private sector in order to succeed. Smart cities need smarter citizens. New platforms are being developed to link authorities, businesses and universities to make that ongoing joint development of smart solutions easier. The digital advancement that will pull all of these technologies together is the Internet of Things. Smart cities will play a central role in a future where every device we use in our daily lives will be connected through the Internet, so that they can all interact and enable us to live more smartly than we have ever done before. Smart cities and the Internet of Things are the foundation for delivering next-generation citizen services. 

The Goals 

EITA Smart Cities Forum offers a unique opportunity to understand how the latest technologies could be harnessed to create economic clusters, foster entrepreneurship and develop new industries in cities and urban centers. It focuses especially on ubiquitous technology - technologies that are thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. The main purpose of this forum is to bring together researchers/academics/industries in the field of system, networking and communication to discuss major challenges, research problems, and potential applications to support smart cities and urban informatics.


(last updated by hhw: 9/27/18)



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