[Biomedical Systems - UC-Berkeley Wireless Research Center]: "Advancements in systems and circuits miniaturization and energy reduction allow for an ever-tighter interfacing between the biological and the cyber world. It is not too far-fetched to imagine integrated sensor (actuator) nodes, including data acquisition and processing circuitry as well as data transmission, that approach the size of a biological cell. This opens the door for a broad range of exciting new applications in the biomedical space. Examples include advanced in-situ and in-vivo monitoring and diagnostics, as well as stimulation or actuation. Mobility, longevity and reliability concerns demand that these nodes communicate wirelessly and operate in energy self-contained mode for a long period of time (> 10 years in some cases). The Berkeley Wireless Research Center (BWRC), with its long-established expertise in energy-efficient circuit design for processing and communication, as well as in energy-harvesting technologies, is therefore at the forefront of the development of the most advanced miniature biomedical systems. An example is its work in brain-machine interfaces (the ultimate unPad technology), in collaboration with the UCB-UCSF Center for Neural Engineering and Prosthetics (CNEP).
Wireless technologies, besides offering the capability of data communication and power delivery, also play an increasing role in medical imaging applications using the penetrating capabilities of high-frequency electromagnetic waveforms. BWRC has been a pioneer in the domain of millimeter-wave and TeraHertz transceivers, implemented in standard CMOS technologies. Advancing the state-of-the-art in CMOS electromagnetic imaging is the target of a range of projects at the Center, essential to the success of the tight integration of antennas, passives and active circuitry into single CMOS devices."