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Materials Chemistry and Physics

The Periodic Table_122820A
[The Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements - Wikipedia]


- Matter and State of Matter

There are four natural states of matter, and one is man-made. H2O in a glass is in three states of matter: ice (solid), water (liquid), and steam (gas). Matter has four natural states: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. The fifth state is an artificial Bose-Einstein condensate.

The same material can exist in many different forms, depending on factors such as temperature and pressure. Any of these forms is called a "state of matter". The state of matter determines how the molecules that make it up are arranged, how much they move, and the strength of the forces between them -- called intermolecular forces.

Each of the five states of matter collectively makes up all the "stuff" in the universe—everything that occupies space and has mass is matter. All matter is made up of atoms, which in turn are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. 

Atoms come together to form molecules, which are the building blocks of all types of matter. Both atoms and molecules are held together by a form of potential energy called chemical energy. Unlike kinetic energy, which is the energy of an object in motion, potential energy is the energy stored in an object.


- Neural Scaling of Deep Chemical Models

Massive scale, both in terms of data availability and computation, enables significant breakthroughs in key application areas of deep learning such as natural language processing (NLP) and computer vision. There is emerging evidence that scale may be a key ingredient in scientific deep learning, but the importance of physical priors in scientific domains makes the strategies and benefits of scaling uncertain.



[More to come ...]


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