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Networking Hardware

(The Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, California - Jeff M. Wang)

- The Purpose of Networking Devices

Networking hardware, also known as network equipment or computer networking devices, are electronic devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network. Specifically, they mediate data transmission in a computer network. Units which are the last receiver or generate data are called hosts, end systems or data terminal equipment. 

Having a solid understanding of the types of network devices available can help you design and built a network that is secure and serves your organization well. However, to ensure the ongoing security and availability of your network, you should carefully monitor your network devices and activity around them, so you can quickly spot hardware issues, configuration issues and attacks.


- Types of Networking Devices

Networking devices includes a broad range of equipment which can be classified as core network components which interconnect other network components, hybrid components which can be found in the core or border of a network and hardware or software components which typically sit on the connection point of different networks. 

The most common kind of networking hardware today is a copper-based Ethernet adapter which is a standard inclusion on most modern computer systems. Wireless networking has become increasingly popular, especially for portable and handheld devices. 

Other networking hardware used in computers includes data center equipment (such as file servers, database servers and storage areas), network services (such as DNS, DHCP, email, etc.) as well as devices which assure content delivery. 

Taking a wider view, mobile phones, tablet computers and devices associated with the internet of things may also be considered networking hardware. As technology advances and IP-based networks are integrated into building infrastructure and household utilities, network hardware will become an ambiguous term owing to the vastly increasing number of network capable endpoints.

- The Common Network Devices

Here is the common network device list:

  • Router: A networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node. It works on OSI layer 3.
  • Gateway: An interface providing a compatibility between networks by converting transmission speeds, protocols, codes, or security measures.
  • Switch: A device that connects devices together on a computer network, by using packet switching to receive, process and forward data to the destination device. Unlike less advanced network hubs, a network switch forwards data only to one or multiple devices that need to receive it, rather than broadcasting the same data out of each of its ports. It works on OSI layer 2.
  • Bridgea device that connects multiple network segments. It works on OSI layers 1 and 2.
  • Repeater: An electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances.
  • Repeater hub: For connecting multiple Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment. It has multiple input/output (I/O) ports, in which a signal introduced at the input of any port appears at the output of every port except the original incoming. A hub works at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model. Repeater hubs also participate in collision detection, forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision. Hubs are now largely obsolete, having been replaced by network switches except in very old installations or specialized applications.
  • Wireless access point:  A wireless access point (WAP), or more generally just access point (AP), is a networking hardware device that allows other Wi-Fi devices to connect to a wired network. The AP usually connects to a router (via a wired network) as a standalone device, but it can also be an integral component of the router itself. An AP is differentiated from a hotspot which is a physical location where Wi-Fi access is available.
  • Firewall: A piece of hardware or software put on the network to prevent some communications forbidden by the network policy. A firewall typically establishes a barrier between a trusted, secure internal network and another outside network, such as the Internet, that is assumed to not be secure or trusted.

[More to come ...]



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