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Energy Storage Technology and Materials

BESS_LADWP_021119A
[A 25-MVA/10-MWh Battery Energy Storage Sytems, Beacon Solar Plant Site, LADWP]

 

- Overview

Energy storage, a technology that may capture and store energy produced at one time and/or certain place for use at a later time and/or another locations, is one of the most critical issues for current society. Energy comes in multiple forms including radiation, chemical, gravitational potential, electrical potential, electricity, elevated temperature, latent heat and kinetic. Energy storage encompasses converting energy from forms that are hard to store to more conveniently or economically storable forms. Bulk energy storage is dominated by pumped hydro, which accounts for 99% of global energy storage.

Efficient energy storage is one of the key points to be solved for a successful development of renewable energies. In addition, the increasing demand for energy sources to power various portable equipment for microelectronics, safety, medical applications, army, smart phones, telecommunications, tools, etc. 

The materials for energy storage applications can be metals, alloys, nonmetallic inorganic materials, organic materials, metal-organic frameworks, or various composites of the above ones. 

 

- Batteries for Electric Vehicles

The growing share of electric vehicles in the market means that more batteries need to be produced, which in turn will lead to an increasing demand for raw materials. Especially in the infancy of electric vehicles, there may be occasional supply bottlenecks. At a later stage, the recycling concept of used batteries can reduce the pressure on the supply chain. 

By 2020, the global electric vehicle population will grow to 10.9 million, an increase of 3 million from the previous year. With more than 5 million electric vehicles, China remains the undisputed leader, followed by the United States. 1.77 million. Germany is in third place with nearly 570,000 electric vehicles. In 2020, the number of newly licensed electric vehicles will reach 3.18 million, a record high. They could account for 25% to 75% of new registrations from 2030. This would result in a demand for battery power of between 1 and 6 TWh per year, depending on the studies read.

 

- Battery Raw Materials

With the popularity of electric vehicles, the demand for special raw materials for automobiles, especially batteries, will continue to grow. All predictions indicate that lithium-ion batteries will become the standard solution for electric vehicles in the next decade, so the main substances required will be the chemical elements graphite, cobalt, lithium, manganese and nickel. According to estimates from the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation (ISI), despite advances in battery chemistry, the weight ratio of lithium in each battery is about 72 g/kg during this period, which is unlikely to be significant. reduce. 

However, the proportion of cobalt may drop significantly from 200 g/kg cell weight to around 60 g/kg. Thus, by 2030, the demand for primary raw materials for automotive battery production should be between 250,000 to 450,000 tons of lithium, 250,000 to 420,000 tons of cobalt, and 13 to 2.4 million tons of nickel.



[More to come ...]



 

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